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6:00 AM
@Mahnax Not necessarily. I like to eat a healthy breakfast before I go to work.
@DavidWallace Okay, but in the way he's using it.
Sure, but if you're writing an answer, make sure it doesn't include a blanket statement like "never use an article with breakfast"; because such a rule would not always be applicable.
I went to a breakfast at the Town Hall that the City Council had organised.
Also, Johnny asked what Americans prefer to use. Correct me if I'm wrong, Mahnax, but you're not actually American. Doesn't that make you not as well qualified to answer the question as other users of this site?
I'm not going to submit an answer; only because I'm not American, and for no other reason.
Oh, I actually have a section at the beginning already, giving examples of when to use "a" and when not to.
I'll add a note saying that I'm actually Canadian, but I've not noticed any difference while visiting the States.
Sorry, Mah, I didn't mean to arrive in this room and start picking fights with people.
school bus—
(a) means a bus that is being used, whether or not for hire
or reward,—
(i) for transporting school children to or from school
with or without their teachers; or
(ii) principally for transporting school children to or
from a school function; but
(b) does not include a bus that—
(i) is being used principally for transporting school
children to or from a school function; and
(ii) is carrying no more passengers than the seated
capacity specified in the bus’s certificate of loading.
My comment above is from a new New Zealand law. Is it just me, or does it contradict itself?
School function != school, I'd guess.
6:10 AM
but a(ii) seems to contradict b(i).
Oh, yeah.
Taken literally, this says that if it's transporting kids to a school function, then it's only a school bus if it has more passengers than the seated capacity.
It does.
So, @John, did I answer your question sufficiently?
The full law is at nzta.govt.nz/resources/rules/docs/road-user-amendment-2011.pdf. It contains some changes to our give-way laws that take effect in a week, so I thought I'd better understand it properly.
@Mahnax I was away. Now I'm checking :-)
6:14 AM
@JohnnyLim Good, good.
Hehe, I just upvoted you, @Mah, just because I gave you such a hard time above.
@DavidWallace Aww, thanks.
My son just told me that he thought that the reason why people abbreviate so heavily when they write text messages is because you pay per character.
Oh, the naïveté of youth.
I feel older than I am sometimes.
My second best tag so far this week is .
Oh yeah!
Yes! I am the top scottish-english user: english.stackexchange.com/tags/scottish-english/topusers
@Mahnax Thanks. It's what I wanted to know :-)
6:19 AM
@JohnnyLim Perfect! Glad I could help.
btw, what is Ngram?
Google Ngrams graph how often a word or phrase has appeared in books over the past few centuries.
It's very helpful.
And free!
wow. thanks. It will be very helpful to me :-)
Keep in mind that it is not perfect.
@JohnnyLim Sure, but you have to be careful about drawing accurate conclusions from it.
6:23 AM
I don't have to append thanking comment of any answer, either?
@DavidWallace Thanks for the advice :-)
The best thing you can do is click the little green check mark :D
Haha. Okay :-)
But you should wait for a couple of hours first, in case someone posts a better answer.
It's true.
The other way to thank him is to click the upwards pointing triangle.
6:24 AM
I think he did.
Oh, I already did lol
I see
That's OK, click it as many times as you can! :-) :-)
I learned much here today. Thanks all. I have to leave now. See ya :-)
Okay, bye!
Why, why did he have to drag me into this?
7:14 AM
@Mahnax I am going to sleep now! You don't have to go to that room if you don't want to!
10:52 AM
Q: Should a "If" followed by "then"

krishnajay Possible Duplicate: Can I use an “if” clause without “then”? If a computer programmers reads an "if" statement, it will be always followed by a "then". Hope any programmer here can understand well. So is it required to add a "then" after the comma that connects...

Not only a dupe, but quite funny indeed.
> If a computer programmers reads an "if" statement, it will be always followed by a "then". Hope any programmer here can understand well.
I read if statements for a living, and none of them, ever, is followed by a then.
I left a comment. No being ignorant on this site.
11:51 AM
Q: Violin and Violence

user971155so is there any correspondence between those two ? :P In my opinion they're pretty familiar in terms of morphology and, sometimes, semantics.

Haha. Yes. Sometimes, semantics.
12:20 PM
Also sex and sax. Those are "familiar" too.
There is too much sax and violins on TV these days.
Note how sax is a wood wind instrument. Coincidence? I don't think so!
Also, I must admit I went to Wiktionary to check if that use of "familiar" could actually be valid.
@RegDwightѬſ道 Haha.
Wad and wood and would are all familiar too.
I woke up with would this morning.
Well, you never know. By which I mean, you always do. But for all I know, some scribes in Medieval Edinburgh might have used it that way.
Or contemporary Delhi, for that matter.
It's like he's hedging his bets on the semantics issue, though. Only sometimes are they familiar in that way.
@RegDwightѬſ道 All bets are off when it comes to Delhi. Indians speak a brand of English that has drifted severely from the mother tongue.
Have doubt about word in language English.
12:33 PM
Screen anyway coffee without see can't. Mahlzeit.
To be fair, you can't quite spell Indo-European without Indo.
Treat the English language well: it was not loaned to you by your children, but given to you by the Indians.
1:32 PM
@RegDwightѬſ道 No. We stole it from the Indians, like everything else. Stole it because they wouldn't give it. Q.E.D.
1 hour later…
2:47 PM
Infection by or with?
Problem solved.
3:06 PM
3:32 PM
@Gigili You can also check dictionaries for this kind of thing. oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/infect
@mahnax Boo!
@WillHunting Gwaaah!
@WillHunting ozdic.com hosts the first edition of Oxford Collocations Dictionary
There's no infection by in the second edition, which I couldn't find available online, though. I wonder why.
I would use I was infected by him with fever myself.
Well, Gigili's word is infection, not infect(ed). I wanted to suggest that maybe the sentence could be rephrased to use infected.
3:39 PM
Oh yes I see you have made a subtle observation!
Sep 13 '11 at 14:21, by Mr. Shiny and New 安宇
@Jasper subtle like a hammer, maybe
@Vitaly Oh man, you actually went to hunt for that!
That's tab number 4861597. Note the 1597. Easy to remember.
@Vitaly Thank you, I'm not sure how to use the results of Google scholar - It means both of them are correct, right?
@Vitaly I know nothing about history. What happened in 1597?
3:45 PM
@WillHunting It's a prime, duh.
@Gigili I think I can see a subtle difference between infection with and infection by, but I wouldn't bet my money on that
Aha, thank you.
@Gigili Well, in any case, since the link I provided only shows with you should stick to that to play safe.
@WillHunting I see, I didn't get any special hint by entering "infection" in the same dictionary. Thank you.
Also, I translated a sentence which sounds odd because of the number of "and"s,
> To gather treated and positive samples and controled and without infection plasma samples of the two groups
(treated and positive) samples and (controlled and without infection) samples
I'll ask this on the main site.
OK, you're better off by asking an actual native speaker, but the Google Scholar results seem to suggest that infection with is used mostly when the sentence is talking about general truths or circumstances ("association between gastric cancer and prior infection with Helicobacter pylori"), and infection by is used when talking about some specific consequences, e.g. "a minimal effect on infection by a CXCR4-tropic virus", "after infection by Botyris fabae"
Yes, stars need space to take effect.
So it's infection by <a disease>/<a virus>.
3:54 PM
> prior infection with Helicobacter pylori
@Gigili I think I know how you get so many ands in the translation now. You used the translation directly which translates A as B and C so the whole thing sounds awkward.
> In some cases, infection with a virus may have a varied effect upon subsequent immunologic reactivity.
Okay, I'm confused. I should read your explanation again.
@WillHunting Yes exactly, how to avoid it?
I think the infection in infection with is closer to a noun, and the infection in infection by is closer to a gerund, as in infecting by, does this make sense?
@Vitaly It means when you're talking about viruses in general, it's infection with as you said (general circumstances) and when it's a special kind of virus, it's infection by
3:58 PM
@Gigili the general circumstance of being infected with some specific bacterium or virus too, Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial species. I put “effect on” and “after” in bold, not the virus names.
@Gigili You should replace it with the correct technical word if it exists. But I know not the biology in the sentence and cannot offer suitable alternatives. I don't think the question is a good fit on the main site but you can try.
the association between gastric cancer and prior infection with Helicobacter pylori is a general truth, but if you are infecting a cell culture with some virus as a stage in your experiment, it wouldn't be a general statement anymore
anyway, I need to go for a while. CU.
@Vitaly I think I got it, thank you. Have fun.
4:32 PM
Q: Noun refers to the person that presents a presentation?

W.N.I tried "presentator" and "presentater", but there's no such words in my dictionary and Google. What is the word I'm searching?

ELU Lite?
@fumblefingers would probably say, there's an interesting question at heart of this, and there is, but it doesn't look like the OP is interested in deep linguisticky stuff.
@RegDwightѬſ道 This is very cryptic!
Which part?
Well, what the question is and what deep stuff is.
4:45 PM
In case that was not a rhetorical question.
Not at all. There's a lot of confusion surrounding agent nouns, cf. commentator vs commenter, for which we already have a couple questions.
Theoretically presentator is an absolutely valid backformation.
Oh I often wonder whether to use commenter or commentator too!
Now that you mention it I think I heard presentator too!
Q: Difference between "commentor" and "commentator"

user964What is the difference between commentor and commentator? Is commentor or commenter a legal English word?

Q: Why do we say 'commentator' instead of 'commenter'?

Pete WilsonAnother thread addresses the Englishness of the words. My question is different and a lot more convoluted: I hope I can make it plain and simple. I. There are straightforward nouns of action and agency with roots in English verbs: procrastinator, loafer, snoozer. And other nouns that arise from ...

And note how he's tried both presentator and presentater.
Q: What's the rule for adding -er vs. -or when nouning a verb?

Claudiu read -> reader hate -> hater hit -> hitter But: meditate -> meditator collect -> collector What's the rule?

So this is not entirely uninteresting.
But again, the way I understand him, this particular OP is just looking for a word to fill a blank.
Anyway, I gotta run. Laters.
@Vitaly "Infection with" would imply an active agent who is exposing a cell sample to infection. "Infection by" is more passive, the agent being the infectious particles themselves.
4:54 PM
@Mahnax I can't believe that got starred!
Compare for instance "The entire reservoir was infected with H. pylori" with "The gastric membranes were infected by H. pylori"
And I'm off. Later!
Stars come in strange ways. You get stars only when you don't expect them, the quality of serendipity.
Very often good things in life happen that way too.
5:18 PM
@Gigili Well, there's a native speaker's opinion on the with vs by issue. ^
5:54 PM
@KitFox So “association between gastric cancer and prior infection with Helicobacter pylori” would imply that the researchers were actively infecting people with H. pylori to see if that caused gastric cancer?
6:10 PM
@reg Take a look at this meta.
Q: Bad link in Question to OP's profile

FumbleFingersOn this question by Eamonn, using the link by the question itself to view his profile shows a blank "about me" box on the right-hand side. Eamonn notes this himself in an "answer" he posted - and following the profile link on his answer displays the "about me" text correctly. It's no biggie, bu...

I don't know if a mod is supposed to merge them.
Let me see.
Okay. Accounts merged, plus the self-answer converted to a comment on FumberFingers' answer, since that's how it read to me.
Any suggestions why my answer is so downvotable?
Q: Use of determiners as adjectives

user103241In a grammar book that I'm reading, an adjective is defined as: A word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. (To modify is to limit or point out or describe: that book; another chance; the blue ribbon). For convenience the articles a, an, and the are usually classified under adjectives. ...

(where I basically claim that determiners are pretty adjective-like.)
6:27 PM
@Mitch I don't know, I am no grammarian.
7:02 PM
@RegDwightѬſ道 I think maybe he means that the "then" is implied.
@WillHunting Nah, can't be. In that case his question would make zero sense.
I suppose he really just programs Visual Basic.
This question is awesome:
Q: dialogue for dry wash

Kejia柯嘉I want a more common expression for the following scenario: Ada: Could you please dry wash these clothing? Bob: Yes, but there may be a bit abrasion for the buttons. Ada: That's fine, just wash them as you want. Bob: OK. Ada: When can I pick them up? Bob: Tomorrow aft...

Oh, yeah.
It's great.
I have been initiating more closes lately. Yay!
It's one of these things you can't ridicule, because they ridicule themselves in the most perfect manner. Any attempt at a parody would be way less funny than the original.
But we are just discussing the posts, no offence to the people who write them. I think it is important to mention this.
7:11 PM
What's the opposite of "detailed"?
Vague? Wishy-washy? Unclear? General? We'd need more context.
<The word> diagram as opposed to detailed diagram
Or just substitute it with "overview".
7:13 PM
@Reg Do you agree with @Kit? I'm failing to see that particular difference in both Google Scholar and COCA.
Uhum, thank you.
@Vitaly I did see her point until you commented. So now I see your point as well.
I think it's a free-for-all.
Context is king, blabla.
@Gigili I think vague is fine.
3 hours ago, by Vitaly
OK, you're better off by asking an actual native speaker, but the Google Scholar results seem to suggest that infection with is used mostly when the sentence is talking about general truths or circumstances ("association between gastric cancer and prior infection with Helicobacter pylori"), and infection by is used when talking about some specific consequences, e.g. "a minimal effect on infection by a CXCR4-tropic virus", "after infection by Botyris fabae"
@Reg And what about that? ^
I. Uh.
I don't think any of those people using either with or by give it anywhere as much thought as us right now.
7:16 PM
> Having the above data, two crude/general diagram will be concluded from all results. The two diagram represents that how many people are most infected with the four viruses and how many are the most healthiest.
More context ^
Your average native speaker never gives much thought to anything he says or types
And yet, he manages to follow some patterns naturally
I'm trying to figure out the pattern
@Gigili That needs some serious copyediting. For starters, "the two diagrams represent"
@Gigili In that case vague is not fine as it has a negative connotation.
Then, not "that how many", but simply "how many".
@RegDwightѬſ道 But the text describes the diagrams as "not detailed"
7:19 PM
@Vitaly Sure but I guess what I'm trying to say is that the more examples I see the less I understand the pattern.
@Gigili Using the above data, we obtain two simple diagrams. These represent the number of people most infected with the four viruses and the number who are healthiest.
@RegDwightѬſ道 that's exactly my problem :( so I am asking you now. I need a незамыленный глаз.
@Gigili I think you are missing my point. 1. Two diagramS, with an S. 2. diagrams represent, not diagrams representS.
@RegDwightѬſ道 I see your point now!
@Vitaly then stop намыливаing it.
7:20 PM
@WillHunting great, thank you.
@RegDwightѬſ道 Even if I stopped намыливаing it right now, it's already намыливаed. No getting around that.
@Gigili But I am not sure if that is what is intended, so a guess work at best.
Anyway, honies. I have Trainspotting on hold. Trying to watch it in the original version. Have to pause after every word, or what I think they might consider a word.
Seriously one should not do technical translations unless he knows the context and is trained in the field.
7:23 PM
So see you laters, whenever my stack is full again. Probably in a couple minutes.
As usual I have to remark that it is unclear who is leaving.
There are many possibilities here.
I amn't leaving.
7:27 PM
@WillHunting Noted, I'll stop translating now.
@Gigili I would think that someone is paying you to do these.
@Mahnax Why is that starred?
@WillHunting I haven't the foggiest.
Apparently one of my other messages was starred for a few seconds, but then it got un-starred.
@WillHunting I'd suggest to not think about it at all.
@Mahnax Maybe Gigili is the devil.
7:29 PM
@WillHunting I doubt it.
The devil's in the detail.
3 hours ago, by Mahnax
That's the one.
@Gigili The devil is in the details.
3 hours ago, by Will Hunting
@Mahnax I can't believe that got starred!
@Mahnax What's with stalking the one who starred? I thought I was free to star whatever message I like.
7:31 PM
@Gigili Oh, you certainly are! I was just a little confused.
Mostly because Jasper said it got starred, but I never saw it.
@Mahnax That's fine. Don't encourage me to star all of your messages.
@Gigili I've not encouraged you nor discouraged you.
I'm just making observations.
I see. I just made a number of nice remarks about you, implicitly of course.
@Gigili But you have just made it very explicit!
@Gigili I wasn't sure how to interpret them.
7:37 PM
@Mahnax Yes, I should have explained it better. My bad.
@Gigili Not a problem.
@Gigili Did you delete your GL&U account?
@Mahnax Sadly, after a a year of activity.
@Gigili You can always keep it if you want.
OK...let me confess. I starrd it because of the abbreviation. Then Will mentioned it wondering why it was starred, then I unstarred it.
@Mitch It's OK, you can star whatever you want!
7:41 PM
@WillHunting How do you mean?
@Mitch Aha!
starring is fun
@Gigili I mean you don't have to delete your account. Was it autodeleted?
it also has weird effects on showing up in the starred area.
I've tried starring one thing and then another, then unstarring them, and they appear and disappear in unexpected order.
(trying to figure out how it's implemented)
@Mitch LOL
7:42 PM
@WillHunting I did delete it.
@Mahnax Do you have an account there?
@Gigili How many days did you have to wait?
@Mitch You can edit your last message by pressing your up key when the text field is empty.
@Gigili Nein.
My German is limited to all of three words.
I knew that. Sort of. too much like IMing to think one can go back.
@WillHunting a few minutes.
7:44 PM
@Gigili I thought the SE team usually gives people a few days to reconsider?
like surreptitiously deleting comments that have responses to make thing look out of the blue.
@WillHunting They just emailed me if I am sure, and I replied yes, I am.
I'm surprised my total rep is still shown 8k.
Speaking of rep, I'm still giddy over hitting 5k.
7:45 PM
The colour is different.
makes obvious observations
color of what?
@Mahnax Do you know why you got there so fast?
@WillHunting Yes, yes, I know.
Thank you.
@Mitch Text.
One is black, the other, grey.
7:47 PM
@mitch Is mitch a common first name?
Mitch is short for Mitchell.
@Mahnax Not necessarily.
hard to judge having it.
@WillHunting Oh?
I disagree.
@Mahnax I mean, names can be anything.
7:48 PM
I don't know of it as short or stand alone otherwise
Some people's official given names are 'Chaz' which presumably came from 'Charles' at one point.
Oh boy, I get another silver badge.
@Mitch not Charlie?
@Mahnax: like ngrams, that needs a lot of interpretation.
7:50 PM
A: "Have a breakfast" or "eat a breakfast" in AmE

MahnaxUsually, we omit the a in a situation like this: I'm going to eat/have breakfast. Unless you want to say something like this: I usually eat a [adjective] breakfast. Or: We're having a breakfast meeting. Etc. But in the specific case you asked about, eat and have are interchange...

First to answer and accepted with at least ten upvotes.
@WillHunting: why would you ask? wouldn't you have an idea if it is common or not?
yesterday, by Vitaly
> Pet names of this type show hypocoristic formations (apparently originally in Australian English) on personal names with /r/ at the end of the first syllable, probably originally representing the first syllable (e.g. Barr- (in Barry )) + -s suffix2. Compare J. Simpson ‘Hypocoristics in Australian English’ in K. Burridge & B. Kortmann Varieties of Eng. (2008) III. 402.
@Mahnax: I wanted to edit the title to remove the 'a', but that's now part of the answers.
@Mitch Well, you are the only Mitch I heard of.
7:52 PM
> soz: Alteration of sorry adj., after Baz, Shaz, Kez, etc., pet names of the forenames Barry, Sharon, Kerry, etc.
Ah yes. The Enlightened badge. Note how @Robusto is so cool, he has more Enlightened badges than you have badges.
@Mitch Heh.
@RegDwightѬſ道 Shhh.
Robusto was speculating if Barrie England is just a screen name like Captain America.
@Vitaly: nice.
Jan 10 at 23:12, by Robusto
@MattЭллен — Barrie England? Yeah, right. I don't believe that's his real name. I mean, why shouldn't the rest of us call ourselves names like Captain America and Anatole France and the like? Now, me, Robusto Hatsuyume is my real name.
7:53 PM
relevant to the conversation...isn't 'England' a not uncommon last name in England?
@Mitch Well, British Matt said it is not common.
Yeah. Also, popular first names include "Queen", and popular middle names include "of".
@WillHunting: anyway, I've heard of others having it, it's not 'exotic' but it's not particularly common.
My name is now Matthew Canada, folks.
It's a very English version of Michael/Michel. (but I'm from the US)
7:55 PM
My name is now Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili.
@RegDwightѬſ道 Just now?
@Mahnax Then mine should be Out-of-this-world.
@RegDwightѬſ道 He also has more answers in 6 different tags than I have answers.
@Vitaly Yes. For the next five minutes. Enjoy it while it lasts.
@RegDwightѬſ道 I know you are Alex. QED.
7:57 PM
BTW, in case you couldn't tell, I gave up watching Trainspotting in Edinbraish and switched to German.
@WillHunting: think Matt Can meant to disagree that it was 'necessarily short for Mitchell' (or something)
@WillHunting and you know that how?
Because I told you.
Well now I'm telling you it is not Alex.
@RegDwight: very steely.
@RegDwightѬſ道 A is not A. Contradiction.
7:58 PM
@WillHunting Will is not Jasper. Also, Mariah.
So you, my dearest friend, should seek some other conversation to troll.
@Vitaly: Charlie and Charles I find similar enough and Chaz not, so that whichever one it comes from I consider them the same as far as that goes.
Okay, the five minutes are over. Henceforth I renounce the name Dzhugashvili. And switch to Stalin, as per @Mitch's most excellent suggestion.
@RegDwightѬſ道 You must use the sequence Lenin, Stalin, Palin.
Nöone wants to use Palin.
After that you may become a violin.
8:02 PM
No Palins in this chat.
So Lenin, Stalin, and Palin walk into a bar....
..the bartender says, 'What, is this some kind of joke?'
Feb 15 at 13:53, by RegDwight Ѭſ道
Lehnt Lenin grad in Leningrad, stahl Stalin grad Stahl in Stalingrad.
There is also Shaolin.
8:04 PM
You get it in the kungfu movies.
I have to leave, gotta pick up Skyrim from a friend.
Then, gaming will commence.
@Mahnax Ciao.
@RegDwight: is 'grad' short for 'gerade'?
8:20 PM
@Mitch Yes.
8:41 PM
Does "Ten plasma samples from 1016 cannot be condone" make sense to you?
No. First, “cannot be v-ed (past participle)”, so it should be “cannot be condoned.” Second, to condone something means to accept something that is morally wrong and allow it to continue. For example, you could say that violence in the name of any religion cannot be condoned. How are the ten plasma samples inherently morally wrong or offensive? And third, what does “from 1016” mean?
Jan 26 at 14:51, by Mr. Shiny and New 安宇
@Jez So you are seriously saying that you'd condone violence to keep Scotland in England
Mar 5 at 6:07, by David Wallace
I'm wondering whether to point out to Robusto that the President of the United States condones assassination in another sovereign nation.
@Vitaly Ten plasma samples from 1016 is not something to not consider?
Um, even worse.
But what should I say instead?
1016 is the whole amount of plasma cells.
Cannot be ignored? Cannot be disregarded?
Cannot be ignored, fits perfectly. Thank you so much.
@Gigili Um, what? If you want to say “10 plasma samples out of 1016” (that is, we take 10 samples out of the 1016 plasma samples we have), then it's “out of”. Or if there are some plasma cells from which you take samples, you should clarify that by saying “10 plasma samples from 1016 plasma cells”.

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