@Tonepoet Three phonemic diphthongs. There are many other phonetic ones but those don’t count.
If you reread my long posting, I’ve incorporated some stuff on the three phonemic diphthongs at the bottom of it under the heading "Comments".
For phonetic diphthongs, this is merely the tip of the iceberg, and the rhotic ones don’t even count in America:
There are lots and lots more than that.
But they don’t matter.
Only the three respectively seen in cow, boy, buy are phonemic ones.
So just because I myself happen to say endure as IPA [ɛnˈdʲuu̯ɹ], there’s no way I’m going to be talking about that to anyone less than a serious expert, of which we have perhaps a half-dozen on our site. For everybody else that’s just plain /ɛnˈdjur/, or in Americanist phonemic notation with /y/ for /j/, just /ɛnˈdyur/. Phonemics are all almost anyone ever cares about because only they change which word you heard.
Meanwhile the British will go fantasizing about phantom tetraphthongs in my [juu̯ɹ] example. Ignore that. :)
Well, different accents do have different phonetic allophones for phonemic diphthongs.
I’d SKIM the article at the link.
Remember that this is also taking in account the rising diphthongs not just the falling ones.
Plus the triphthongs, which most of us never have to deal with in our own languages.
Except for that we don’t count as triphthongs things like those in English because of rhyming.
Of course an Iberian word with a stressed triphthong like averiguáis, averigüéis (ind+subj vosotros forms of "verify") would likely rhyme in their poetry differently than in ours.
It would probably only need to rhyme with /a/ and /e/ respectively, not worrying so much about the glides to either side. I’d have to hunt to see if they rhyme /ai/ with /a/, /ei/ with /e/.
But in English we can use rhyme to show the rising diphthongs are not thought of as different vowels than a version without the on-glide.
So quick can rhyme with sick. We don’t care about the /w/ on-gline.
I’m less certain of cute and shoot rhyming, but quite possibly.
In which case, the /ju/ diphthong doesn’t count for rhyming, just the /u/ part does.
Portuguese preterite averiguei is spelled averigüé in Spanish, and there is no /j/ off-glide there.
Portuguese lost their diaereses because they thought you should be able to know whether the u is silent to make the g hard or whether it should be a /w/ sound. Spanish thinks that's dumb to make people guess so always writes things consistently and predictably based on sound alone. Hence lingüística, which is how the Portuguese spelled it until recently as well.
If you saw the word guisa you would not know whether that were /gwisa/ or /gisa/ if it were Portuguese, but Spanish guarantees that it must be only /gisa/ because /gwisa/ would have to be written güisa.
And yes, guisa means the same obvious thing in all three of Italian and Spanish and Portuguese.
I think it’s better to write diphthongs with /w/ and /j/ (or /y/ if you prefer) always as the consonant forms. A cow that cowers just has "ers" added to its /kaw/, but the original ending sound does not change so why respell it to change it from a vowel to a consonant at that point? Just leave it alone, it's the same thing.
The Spanish write María with an accent but Mario without because the girl has no diphthong so you have to separate out the /i/. But in the boy there is a diphthong and so a two-syllable word with penultimate stress ending in a vowel needs no written accent.
That’s why they write estoy with a consonant. If they had written that with a vowel at the end, they’d’ve needed a written accent mark.
Portuguese has different rules from these. Its estou version is still stressed at the end.
I had a dream that I was at a poetry conference, standing behind the lectern reading out my poem that was about children that are dying from disease or because of poverty or war. It was a sort of contest and my poem had won first prize.
I don't remember exactly, but I think it was especially about Pakistani and Indian children. I'm not sure why; maybe because I'd been thinking for a while about those two troubled, nuclear-armed states that are (or I thought were) at the brink of a grim territorial conflict.
Oh, and the poem was in English! It was nice, but I don't remember any of it.
@Færd That is a very nice dream. You are right, here in India we have lots of poverty, it is sad. By the grace of Annapoorna devi and Gautama Buddha I'm doing good, but when I was very young I used to go to bed starving at nights sometimes. Those were awful nights, I remember :/
Now I'm thinking that that dream was just a reflection of the nature of my concern for others' misfortune: indulging my social or intellectual desires and satisfying my emotional needs and, in short, get my kick out of the situation.
Everyone and everything is selfish, each in its own way. Where does worth and merit lie then? What is this ingrained tendency to assign value to selflessness?
There should be something that we, behind and beyond all of our aspirations, unconsciously aspire to. And that thing should be worth and value and meaning in itself. This is the only answer, if there, indeed, is an answer.
@sumelic It doesn't much matter, but I wonder whether the Modern Greek fricative [ð] gets realized as a dental, denti-alveolar, alveolar, or post-alveolar one, and whether it’s ever an approximant in some phonological contexts. I’ve just spent 15 minutes looking, and I haven’t found anything definitive, nor sound samples for me so I could judge for myself. Maybe @terdon would know.
This says that the [t] for example “varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar, and apical alveolar”. But I know nothing of Greek phonology.
A pronunciation respelling is a regular phonetic respelling of a word that does have a standard spelling, so as to indicate the pronunciation. Pronunciation respellings are sometimes seen in dictionaries.
This should not be confused with pronunciation spelling, which is an ad hoc spelling of a word that has no standard spelling. Most of these are nonce coinages, but some have become standardized, e.g. gonna to represent the pronunciation of going to, as in I'm gonna catch you.
== Respelling ==
Pronunciation spellings may be used informally to indicate the pronunciation of foreign words or those...
In linguistics, is there a term describing this phenomenon, i.e., when the syllables of two words are slurred together in the spoken language? They are not contractions. While contractions are acceptable in any register, this combination of words is very informal and hardly ever found in formal ...