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12:01 AM
Why are some questions appearing this way?
12:57 AM
@Abcd I don't use the desktop site could be because of your favorite tags/ views of the question
@AvnishKabaj favourite tag colour is different
1:28 AM
can this question please be protected?
A: Difference between solubility and dissolution?

manahil tanveersolubility: the capacity of solute to be dissolved in a given amount of solvent (how many moles of solute are dissolved) solutes solubility is always questioned it is a thermodynamic process its unit is mol/kg dissolution: rate of solute dissolving in a solution (how fast the solute diss...

I'm sure I've seen 1rep users post answers more than once, which add little value
1:39 AM
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ the answers by Sher Singh and Manahil look extremely similar, I'm surprised I cannot find the plagiarization source they've used
2:08 AM
Q: What is the detailed mechanism of conversion of sodium salt of benzene sulfonic acid to phenol?

Jacob P.JI don’t understand how NaO removes SO3Na from the ring? Could you provide a diagrammatic view of the mechanism? I also don't understand the breaking of NaOH to produce NaO and H+ doesn't it usually break into Na+ and OH -

Q: my question was closed as too broad, so I edited it as directed, but still nothing happened

Bennett I have a question about my Chemistry Stack Exchange post: Is there a terminology contradiction about whether the conjugate of a strong acid is a "weak base"? The original version of my post was asking about several apparently contradictions in the ways that "strong" and "weak" were used for...

Q: links to my posts point to chemistry.meta.stackexchange.com instead of chemistry.stackexchange.com

Bennett I have a question about my Chemistry Stack Exchange post: Is there a terminology contradiction about whether the conjugate of a strong acid is a "weak base"? When I fill out the form to post a new question on chemistry.meta.stackexchange.com, it shows me the links to questions I have posted...

3:06 AM
4 hours ago, by Avnish Kabaj
I have the power . BWAHAHAHHAHAHA!
No one should have this much power
2 hours later…
5:02 AM
Why does Carbon go inversion in $S_N 2$ reaction? Why does $sp^3$ become $sp^2$ hybridised?
How is that feasible?
2 hours later…
6:43 AM
@Abcd ignored tags
This is gold
@Abcd it's given is clayden somewhere with lots of pretty colored pictures
@AvnishKabaj I can't find it.
Page number please
7:13 AM
@Abcd can't find it either
2 hours later…
9:01 AM
@MollyCooL sorry, i read your msg on mobile, but forgot to reply on pc, shouldn't happen again; i was talking about this - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene
@GaurangTandon $sp^3$ looks better than sp3
Anyway, at the end of the day IUPAC is so pedantic! I mean who cares so much about short notations!! Just let them be written the way they look nice @IUPAC!!!
9:20 AM
you know how much menace this caused in the past centuries of chemistry?
go read this - old.iupac.org/general/about.html - one of IUPAC's main goal was standardization of notations and nomenclature
so you can't blame them for being pedantic
9:53 AM
@Abcd why did you change "Sol" to "Solution" here? chemistry.stackexchange.com/q/94051/5026
sol is actually an accepted term in colloidal chemistry
Sol is something in 12th right
"A sol is a colloidal solution suspension of very small solid particles in a continuous liquid medium. Sols are quite stable and show the Tyndall effect" read Wikipedia to begin with
@AvnishKabaj totally right. I wonder why Abcd changed that?
He must not know what it is
You're the guy who changes 1 to 1 and 2 to 2 though
@AvnishKabaj of course I do, I also change sp3 to sp3, SN2 to SN2, pKa to pKa, etc.
will the negative charge delocalise here? can any chemist help me here? I was taught that 3rd period elements have vacant d-orbitals, but veteran posters on Chem.SE hate vacant d-orbitals (especially excitation of electrons into vacant d orbitals during hybridization), so what is true?
10:14 AM
Going to be a very bad overlap
@AvnishKabaj high schoolers with excitable d orbitals should remain quiet while the chemists deliberate and give back an answer
What is my d orbital
1 hour later…
11:59 AM
Does anyone have any idea what the valence bond overlap diagram for HNO3 would be?
When you determine the hybridisation of all the respective atoms, one of the oxygens is Sp3 one is sp2 and the nitrogen is sp2.
The sp2 hybridisation in the nitrogen indicates that a lone pair resides in a hybrid orbital, however the lewis structure dosen't indicate this
And then when you look at the oxygen that it is bonded it to, the sp3 oxygen indicates that it has a lone electron making it a radical which it isn't
The other electrons reside in sp3 orbitals which make sigma bonds as you would expect, or lone pairs which reside in sp3 orbitals
Has this got something to with HNO3's resonance, and if so how would you draw it ...
what did I just see....
A: How does the HCl-KCl Buffer work?

Vic LinealIntroduction Let's define buffer capacity quantitatively as $$\beta=\cfrac{dc_b}{d(pH)}=-\cfrac{dc_a}{d(pH)}$$ that is, the relationship between concentration (in equivalents) of strong base ($c_b$) or acid ($c_a$) added to a solution and its change in $pH$. From now on I'll assume we're addin...

did Vic Lineal accidentally post his research thesis on this site?
only +50 might not do justice to him imo for such a long answer...
@any1 do we give ethers preference in nomenclature when no other functional group is present?
Woah woah. How many hours would that have taken?
12:15 PM
sorry I was fixing that post's mathjax to read what he's writteb
@MollyCooL of course we do, do you've an example?
@MichaelHarding isn't the lone pair coordinated to one of the other oxygen atoms?
Like consider a compound with 2 methyl substituents attached to cyclohexane and in the neigbouring carbon -OC2H5 is attached
you just treat it as an ordinary substituent, whose name will be written in the prefix; like "nitro", "ethoxy", etc.
so going by alphabetical rule, the name should be 1-ethoxy-2,3-dimethylcyclohexane
Sorry was answering a comment
Wait, I shall post an image so it would be clear
@MollyCooL I have no idea about your new questions
12:32 PM
Oh! That’s alright. Can you confirm that considering neutral molecules, BuLi is the strongest!?
I didnt even think bout di anions
@GaurangTandon check this link postimg.org/image/hcw6jypsd
@MollyCooL ohthen you'd have to apply first point of difference
one locant set is 1,1,2
the other is 1,2,2
so the first one is preferred
hence the answer is 2-ethoxy-1,1-dimethylcyclohexane
getting it?
:43642585 nope, it isn't ;)
@GaurangTandon yup realised that.
Why lowest locant sum rule is both valid and invalid ? How can I know when to apply and when not to? @GaurangTandon
12:41 PM
lowest sum rule doesn't exist, sad reality :'(
Yes thats what. But isn’t it applied here?
sum rule doesn't exist. it's applied nowhere in entire o-chem...
Lol i was halfway through my answer on the thermo question and soumik answered it
Then what explains 1,1,2 over 1,2,2?
@MollyCooL first point of difference
@MollyCooL Lowest Locant Rule
You need the lowest set of locants/
Till first point of difference
12:46 PM
Is there no difference between -OC2H5 and -CH3 grp?
Also, Set of locants rule> Alphabetisation
@MollyCooL no. Both are treated as substituents
@MollyCooL if your answer is different from Soumik's, then do post it.
3 hours ago, by Gaurang Tandon
@Abcd why did you change "Sol" to "Solution" here? https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/q/94051/5026
@GaurangTandon Didn't get the ping
@GaurangTandon solution is better right?
Sol is just an ugly looking short cut
sol is actually an accepted term in colloidal chemistry; "A sol is a colloidal solution suspension of very small solid particles in a continuous liquid medium. Sols are quite stable and show the Tyndall effect" read Wikipedia to begin with
$sol^n$ looks better
12:57 PM
sol is not equivalent to solution
Its actually close so i didnt post.
@GaurangTandon Oh Shit. My bad
Sorry @GaurangTandon
Please edit it bck
I didn't know about "sols"
Why both as substituents ? is my question
@Abcd no need to be sorry, it wasn't my question anyway; but be careful when you edit questions outside of your domain, the question was tagged "colloids"....
@GaurangTandon Yes. will be careful from next time
12:58 PM
@MollyCooL because IUPAC chose them to be so...such philosophical questions are better reserved for Loong
@Abcd good
in JEE/High School Chemistry Problems, 22 mins ago, by Abcd
@GaurangTandon @AvnishKabaj Why do $S_N1$ reactions need weak nucleophiles?
@MollyCooL Any idea^^^^!?
Oh! Okay if @Loong is anywhere here, please
Weak nucleophile is not an absolute condition but even a weak nucleophile can bring about SN1 because of carbocation intermediate
Also add maybe cause im not 100% on that
@MollyCooL Framed in a better way, "why do weak nucleophiles favour $S_N1$"
Okay! Now that is like why SN1 and not SN2
For weak nucleophiles.
In SN2 the nucleophile approaches from the rear side of the Leaving group and inorder for it to get substituted it should be a stronger nucleophile than the leaving group. Makes sense?
@MollyCooL We are talking about $S_N1$...
not $S_N2$
1:08 PM
Yes, you asked a question stating weak nucleophiles favour SN1
Why do they? Right!?
Im trying to answer it like why they dont favour SN2 and hence they favour SN1
@MollyCooL Makes sense.
@GaurangTandon actually ethers in reactions, without play a bigger role than methyl groups in terms of a functional group right?
Hello lord!
To whom ?
1:17 PM
To you. Forget the lord. Hello !
@MollyCooL ofc i agree; though only loong can answer what you're asking... :(
@MollyCooL You mean lord shree krishna ?
@Abcd it's all there in clayden/Peter Sykes
Yes @Akash.B
Okay @GaurangTandon
Should i post it on main or wait for Loong
Mr. Loong*
@MollyCooL you should wait for Loong
@MollyCooL Loong is definitely not his name; it's his username ;P i'm not sure if it's grammatical to say "Mr." along with a username, @M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ can help?
grammmer halp MAR ^^^
1:21 PM
@MollyCooL That sort of stuff is best left for chemists who are up to date with chem stuff or I'll have to Google
My reasoning is sometimes very wrong
To which question do you refer? @AvnishKabaj
@MollyCooL Well I am not lord krishna, I just kept his photo as my profile photo because I am a big bhakta of him
Yes, i know, just said ;)
1:27 PM
@MollyCooL dunz man all of them
You said “ that sort of stuff is best....”. Was it for the question that i asked on chat now?
For the BuLi
Oh okay!
Masterorganic chemistry actually places ether in functional group priorities list masterorganicchemistry.com/2011/02/14/…
1:45 PM
@MollyCooL many resources do that; notice that "Masterorganic chemistry" also places "alkane" in that list lol
most of them are lazy to make a new table and label it as "substituents"
Yes i did notice that
Maybe lol
Not again. Ugh, i post an answer and suddenly 2 pop out statin they were posted before
1 hour later…
3:03 PM
@MollyCooL linky?
There's this guideline, that, if you post an answer subjectively much later than the existing answers, you have to add something to the thread
@GaurangTandon it's grammatical to say anything in an online chatroom, one could argue
@GaurangTandon Of course it's his name
Not much later 10mins max it would have been. I should rather type faster
@MollyCooL then such comments would be unfounded
@Abcd thank you for being considerate! The CV review can breathe now
3:20 PM
@orthocresol since you're here, please help me with this, just once, please
5 hours ago, by Gaurang Tandon
user image
5 hours ago, by Gaurang Tandon
will the negative charge delocalise here? can any chemist help me here? I was taught that 3rd period elements have vacant d-orbitals, but veteran posters on Chem.SE hate vacant d-orbitals (especially excitation of electrons into vacant d orbitals during hybridization), so what is true?
3:37 PM
@GaurangTandon Why doesn't aluminium expand its octet like sulphur?
@Abcd IIRC energy gap
@Abcd why does it need to?
Which I probably don't
@GaurangTandon why does sulphur need to?
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ Do you still study/ teach chemistry? (Just out of curiosity)
@Abcd it needs to form $\ce{SO3}$?
3:39 PM
@GaurangTandon there is no compulsion on it... to form $\ce{SO3}$
@Abcd neither. Used to study
@Abcd huh? then I probably don't know... ask on main
Just rationalize everything with energy
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ university or school?
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ okay, will think about it.
@Abcd high school. University entrance exam in less than 100 days
3:43 PM
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ Oh, so you must be around 19-20 years old!
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ So "used to" seems to imply that you won't study Chemistry in Uni?
@GaurangTandon First, don't confuse total volume $V$ with molar volume $v_i$.
@Abcd I most probably will
Second: the molar volume is a fixed property of each component of the system, not an overall system property like the pressure.
So, Le Chatelier just simply doesn't apply to molar volumes.
@Abcd right. 19.28
It's analogous to temperature and specific enthalpy: For an endothermic reaction, adding heat drives the reaction to the right.
Just like in this case, adding pressure drives the reaction to the right.
3:45 PM
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ Nice. You are young. I thought you were around 24-25.
In the endothermic reaction, the products have a higher specific enthalpy
By the logic of your comment, adding energy in the form of increased temperature should result in the reaction shifting to the species with lower specific enthalpy (the reactants)
But that's exactly the opposite of what occurs
oh oh thanks for the details @hBy2Py.
@hBy2Py ok i understand this
@hBy2Py yep
@hBy2Py got it
@hBy2Py stuck :/
volume of ice is more, right?
@hBy2Py here's another ping
@GaurangTandon At constant moles of water, yes, volume of ice is greater
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ pong
@hBy2Py ping pong ;)
@hBy2Py so, when we add more pressure, we're decreasing the volume, which means the system will try to resist the change; which means system will move towards higher volume
...so it will move towards ice?
3:54 PM
@GaurangTandon The problem is here, somehow: we're decreasing the volume
But it's going to take me a bit to find the problem with the chain of logic
I would formulate it as: When you increase pressure, the system tries to resist the change, and so it shifts to the form that takes up less space, to diminish the final overall change in pressure
I think Chester Miller's comment is it, actually:
The liquid and solid, to a reasonable approximation, can be considered incompressible (i.e., dV=0) — Chester Miller 8 mins ago
When you increase the pressure, the volume change of the ice phase itself is basically nil.
A much greater relative decrease in the system volume can be obtained by changing phase to liquid water.
To be honest, I find this a bit complicated. At least, this is a bit tough to grasp, especially as my knowledge of chemical equilibrium solely rested on the fact "pressure increase => volume decrease"
@hBy2Py this essentially contradicts what i've been taught till now
(...i've been taught till now... for gas phase equilibriums)
Right, where there's no chemical reaction and no phase change
For solids, the effect of pressure on volume is usually characterized by the 'compressibility'
Which has units of, e.g., cm/Pa-cm
That's (cm of compression) / (Pa * cm of length in the direction of applied pressure)
So, an object with a length of 1cm and compressibility of 1e-6 cm/Pa-cm being compressed by 1000 Pa along its length would shrink by 1e-3 cm.
(1000 Pa pressure) * (1cm length) * (1e-6 cm/Pa-cm) = 1e-3 cm of compression
@hBy2Py that is SO damn much
Poor object
Regular ice has isothermic compressibility of 0.1178 cm/GPa-cm at 0C
Hm... I don't know if this actually gets to the explanation I was hoping for. :-/
But, I'll try
(I really believe you'll want to add all this info into your original answer once finished)
4:07 PM
I thought you said "I really believe you"
That's the message that got 2 stars!
@Abcd my keyboard's enter key is next to the apostrophe, so i often press Enter prematurely; but this coincidence was spot on :P
So, with an applied pressure of 1 atm, about 100 kPa, the relative compression of ice will be 0.0012%.
Basically zero
@hBy2Py hmmm yep
....so what were we trying to prove though?
yeah, this is where it kind of crashes
I think in order to close the loop I'd have to do some massive equation-of-state calculation that, honestly, I don't really know how to do.
really? that much for a simple ice-liquid equilibrium? :-O
what do you think of Miller's answer below?
4:12 PM
in JEE/High School Chemistry Problems, 5 mins ago, by Abcd
@GaurangTandon do you have any idea about the hybridisation of Carbon in dichlorocarbene and its structure?
Does any one have any idea about this^?
to be honest, he says "This equation is in every thermo book." but I've never seen $dH=TdS+VdP$ before :/
@GaurangTandon Wat.
@GaurangTandon Please let me know the question.
Like, wat!
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ i mean, i really haven't. Why "wat"?
4:13 PM
@GaurangTandon It's valid as far as it goes, but it doesn't really finish the argument.
Actually, the correct equation is $dG=dH-d(TS)=dH-TdS-SdT$. When combined with $dH=TdS+VdP$, this becomes $dG=-SdT+VdP$. This equation is in every thermo book. — Chester Miller 58 mins ago
As to why a decrease in the melting point temperature leads to ice melting
@hBy2Py could be; i crashed at his first equation though, never seen it before
@GaurangTandon it is a wat of surprise. You must be chatting from behind Mt. Everest
Wait, you are
But if I was in China
$dU= TdS- pdV$
This is the fundamental equation of thermodynamics
$dH = dU+ pdV + Vdp \implies dH = TdS + VdP$
4:15 PM
So Chinese people come from behind the mountains
@Abcd say no further i got it, thanks!
I like how I can see bare MathJax. It's like chat is naked.
@GaurangTandon Best I can do is to change the logic a bit: when the applied pressure increases, the system changes in whatever ways it can to reduce the overall volume
Because a response that reduces volume results in a smaller pressure increase than if the volume had remained strictly constant
In the water/ice system, one of the ways the system has available to it to reduce its volume is melting, since the liquid specific volume is less than the solid specific volume
hmmm, it still seems to contradict my education about, say N2 + 3H2 -> 2NH3; i was taught increasing the pressure would shift the equilibrium rightward
4:21 PM
@GaurangTandon It does
@GaurangTandon its le chats
In that system, the mechanism available to decrease the volume of the system is reacting to form fewer moles of products than of reactants
I think I now understand what you're saying
@JavaScriptCoder no, it's die schats
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ eh, i'm a french scholar also, not just a german scholar
4:22 PM
France sucks. Germany is awesome.
yup, i'll digest it a few more times, @hBy2Py but it seems to be solid. thanks! :D
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ whoa bias
@GaurangTandon no, it melts
Son las charlas, mi amigos.
now spanish really sucks
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ and I can agree
4:23 PM
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ ?
Spanish is good.
Just to disagree
You're no fun
SE hates fun
Just wondering, being Iranian, do you speak arabic?
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ SE is for teh grumps
4:25 PM
@JavaScriptCoder A little, but that's because they teach us, not that we learn it from the street
My mother tongue is actually Azeri Turkish
is arabic good?
@JavaScriptCoder we have been made to believe it's unnecessarily complicated
Happens to any language shittily taught
lets just say my french/german teachers can teach well
4:26 PM
@GaurangTandon No. The decrease in the total volume of the system is the Le Chatelier response to the increased pressure, and the melting phase change is one of the mechanisms available to the system to decrease its volume. — hBy2Py 6 mins ago
Persian is historically closer to Hindi or Sanskrit
@hBy2Py do please add this to your answer. I'm sure I wasn't the only one confused by the first version of your answer
Can do
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ Persian? Did you mean turkish as that's what you were talking about?
4:43 PM
@GaurangTandon Edits made; I don't see any point to including that long ramble on compressibility
The analogy to the change-in-moles reaction was probably good to put it, though.
No, real world physical constants are mostly read-only. — Ivan Neretin 3 hours ago
5:06 PM
@hBy2Py yep, looks perfect; +1
I dont know how to tag a previously sent message. Help!
@Loong if you’re here, did you read the question in which i tagged your username? If no, I shall put my question up, @GaurangTandon suggested that you would be able to answer it
5:29 PM
@MollyCooL If you hover over the message you want to tag, look for a little right-angle arrow button at the far right of the message
Click that, and it adds something that looks like :28374748 to your typing box
That's how it tags/links to the other message
Oh! But when i used it, it just tagged the user i tried to reply and not the message. Let me try again
@hBy2Py Thank you
It just tagged you..
5:47 PM
2 hours ago, by Gaurang Tandon
5 hours ago, by Gaurang Tandon
user image
2 hours ago, by Gaurang Tandon
5 hours ago, by Gaurang Tandon
will the negative charge delocalise here? can any chemist help me here? I was taught that 3rd period elements have vacant d-orbitals, but veteran posters on Chem.SE hate vacant d-orbitals (especially excitation of electrons into vacant d orbitals during hybridization), so what is true?
@GaurangTandon Well, its possible according to me.
In march there's a section on $p\pi - d\pi$ bonding
He discusses about "Ylids" and acknowledges $p \pi - d\pi$ bonding
6:01 PM
@MollyCooL When a message has a tag in it, there's a different right-angle arrow that appears on the left-hand side of the message. If you click that left-side right-angle arrow, it'll take you to the tagged message.
2 hours later…
7:47 PM
@JavaScriptCoder I was just talking about languages primarily spoken in Iran
Our Turkish is unfortunately getting closer and closer to extinction
It's mystifying
Origins probably Uighur
8:39 PM
@GaurangTandon look up 'negative hyperconjugation'
9:27 PM
@ortho, did something happen to the 'canonical Q&A' post on Meta? I'm having trouble finding it.
9:48 PM
@M.A.R.ಠ_ಠ don't make it go like latin did
@hBy2Py This one?
Q: Canonical Q&A – Proposing A Patronage System

hBy2PyThe below is a draft proposal of a patronage concept for encouraging authorship of canonical Q&A posts. Comments on it are welcomed as non-RFCP answers. We get a lot of questions on Chem.SE that are variations on common themes: simple acid-base equilibria, definition of rate constants, etc. T...

Or this one?
Q: The Giant List of Duplicates

orthocresolFor those who haven't been frequenting meta, this post has been suggested numerous times. The intention is to collect together good questions with good answers which can be used as duplicate targets. While this is obviously a mammoth task, there is no stipulation that it is (or ever will be) exha...

10:18 PM
@orthocresol Ahh, it was the duplicates question, not the canonical
Nicely explains why I couldn't find it.

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