At one point I set out to memorize the periodic table in Japanese, which was fairly easy since 90% of it is the same as English. There are about a dozen derived from Chinese instead, and a few which are distinct from American English (kalium, aluminium)
Here, cameras mounted on traffic lights detect people passing through red lights and send them tickets in the mail, so cities have a financial incentive to make yellows as short as possible, and people have an incentive to try to brake super hard when they see one.
@DamkerngT. The actual reason, I think, is that a lot of people are in a hurry. When I was younger, my sister did her makeup in the car. I don't know if she still does, since we now live a couple thousand miles apart
> Likely area of language origin. Maps show the likely location of a single language origin under a founder effect model of phonemic diversity (controlling for population size) inferred from (A) individual languages and (B) mean diversity across language families. Lighter shading implies a stronger inverse relationship between phonemic diversity and distance from the origin and better fit of the model, as measured by the BIC. The most likely region of origin, comprising those locations within four BIC units of the best-fit origin location, is the area of lightest shading outlined in bold.
@Mitch Very fair criticism. Applying this sort of quantitative data probably acquired through some partially subjective process to a very complex situation is problematic. (See also social psychology.)
Jared Mason Diamond (born on September 10, 1937) is an American scientist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991), Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize), ' (2005) and The World Until Yesterday (2012). Originally trained in physiology, Diamond's work is known for drawing from a variety of fields, including anthropology, ecology, geography, and evolutionary biology. As of 2013, he is Professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has been described as "America’s best-known geographer".
Early life and educa...
lots of really interesting stuff (also in his book Collapse, but unfortunately not always supported)
I've noticed a number of recent questions on ELL that request advice using articles. To avoid having to list the basic rules of use, I would like to propose that the current tag wiki:
Article is the term used for a modifying word that introduce a noun phrase, and that implies that:
I'm sure that Japanese people must have even stronger feelings about the event, and maybe in many different ways.
Luckily, our house wasn't in any particular strategic area, so we survived rather okay. But she often told me about how tough it was like.
She couldn't buy some milk for my dad, for example.
Oh, thinking about things in the past, when I was born, they brought me to a monk (the same one who gave me my name, with a suggestion of my dad), and he predicted that I would grow up to be someone important.
A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway. Chapter 37.
A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway. Chapter 37. (cont'd)
> The lake widened and across it on the shore at the foot of the mountains on the other side we saw a few lights that should be Luino. I saw a wedgelike gap between the mountains on the other shore and I thought that must be Luino.
> If it was we were making good time. I pulled in the oars and lay back on the seat. I was very, very tired of rowing. My arms and shoulders and back ached and my hands were sore.
> "I could hold the umbrella," Catherine said. "We could sail with that with the wind." "Can you steer?" "I think so."
> "You take this oar and hold it under your arm close to the side of the boat and steer and I'll hold the umbrella." I went back to the stern and showed her how to hold the oar. I took the big umbrella the porter had given me and sat facing the bow and opened it. It opened with a clap. I held it on both sides, sitting astride the handle hooked over the seat.
> The wind was full in it and I felt the boat suck forward while I held as hard as I could to the two edges. It pulled hard. The boat was moving fast.
> "We're going beautifully," Catherine said. All I could see was umbrella ribs. The umbrella strained and pulled and I felt us driving along with it. I braced my feet and held back on it, then suddenly, it buckled; I felt a rib snap on my forehead, I tried to grab the top that was bending with the wind and the whole thing buckled and went inside out and I was astride the handle of an inside-out, ripped umbrella, where I had been holding a wind-filled pulling sail.
> I unhooked the handle from the seat, laid the umbrella in the bow and went back to Catherine for the oar. She was laughing. She took my hand and kept on laughing.
"What's the matter?" I took the oar. "You looked so funny holding that thing." "I suppose so." "Don't be cross, darling. It was awfully funny. You looked about twenty feet broad and very affectionate holding the umbrella by the edges----" she choked. "I'll row."
> "Take a rest and a drink. It's a grand night and we've come a long way." "I have to keep the boat out of the trough of the waves." "I'll get you a drink. Then rest a little while, darling."
> I held the oars up and we sailed with them. Catherine was opening the bag. She handed me the brandy bottle. I pulled the cork with my pocket-knife and took a long drink. It was smooth and hot and the heat went all through me and I felt warmed and cheerful. "It's lovely brandy," I said. The moon was under again but I could see the shore. There seemed to be another point going out a long way ahead into the lake.
> "Are you warm enough, Cat?" "I'm splendid. I'm a little stiff." "Bail out that water and you can put your feet down." Then I rowed and listened to the oarlocks and the dip and scrape of the bailing tin under the stern seat. "Would you give me the bailer?" I said. "I want a drink." "It's awfully dirty."
> "That's all right. I'll rinse it." I heard Catherine rinsing it over the side. Then she handed it to me dipped full of water. I was thirsty after the brandy and the water was icy cold, so cold it made my teeth ache. I looked toward the shore. We were closer to the long point. There were lights in the bay ahead.
> "Thanks," I said and handed back the tin pail. "You're ever so welcome," Catherine said. "There's much more if you want it." "Don't you want to eat something?" "No. I'll be hungry in a little while. We'll save it till then."
> "All right." What looked like a point ahead was a long high headland. I went further out in the lake to pass it.
> The lake was much narrower now. The moon was out again and the guardia di Finanza could have seen our boat black on the water if they had been watching.
> "How are you, Cat?" I asked. "I'm all right. Where are we?" "I don't think we have more than about eight miles more." "That's a long way to row, you poor sweet. Aren't you dead?" "No. I'm all right. My hands are sore is all."
> We went on up the lake. There was a break in the mountains on the right bank, a flattening-out with a low shore line that I thought must be Cannobio.
> I stayed a long way out because it was from now on that we ran the most danger of meeting guardia.
> There was a high dome-capped mountain on the other shore a way ahead. I was tired. It was no great distance to row but when you were out of condition it had been a long way. I knew I had to pass that mountain and go up the lake at least five miles further before we would be in Swiss water.
> The moon was almost down now but before it went down the sky clouded over again and it was very dark. stayed well out in the lake, rowing awhile, then resting and holding the oars so that the wind struck the blades.
> "Let me row awhile," Catherine said. "I don't think you ought to." "Nonsense. It would be good for me. It would keep me from being too stiff." "I don't think you should, Cat." "Nonsense. Rowing in moderation is very good for the pregnant lady."
> "All right, you row a little moderately. I'll go back, then you come up. Hold on to both gunwales when you come up." I sat in the stern with my coat on and the collar turned up and watched Catherine row. She rowed very well but the oars were too long and bothered her. I opened the bag and ate a couple of sandwiches and took a drink of the brandy. It made everything much better and I took another drink.
> "Tell me when you're tired," I said. Then a little later, "watch out the oar doesn't pop you in the tummy." "If it did"--Catherine said between strokes--"life might be much simpler." I took another drink of the brandy. "How are you going?" "All right."
> "Tell me when you want to stop." "All right" I took another drink of the brandy, then took hold of the two unwales of the boat and moved forward. "No. I'm going beautifully." "Go on back to the stern. I've had a grand rest."
> For a while, with the brandy, I rowed easily and steadily. Then I began to catch crabs and soon I was just chopping along again with a thin brown taste of bile from having rowed too hard after the brandy. "Give me a drink of water, will you?" I said. "That's easy," Catherine said.
> Before daylight it started to drizzle. The wind was down or we were protected by mountains that bounded the curve the lake had made. When I knew daylight was coming I settled down and rowed hard. I did not know where we were and I wanted to get into the Swiss part of the lake. When it was beginning to be daylight we were quite close to the shore. I could see the rocky shore and the trees.
> "What's that?" Catherine said. I rested on the oars and listened.
> It was a motor boat chugging out on the lake. I pulled close up to the shore and lay quiet. The chugging came closer; then we saw the motor boat in the rain a little astern of us. There were four guardia di finanza in the stern, their alpini hats pulled down, their cape collars turned up and their carbines slung across their backs. They all looked sleepy so early in the morning.
> I could see the yellow on their hats and the yellow marks on their cape collars. The motor boat chugged on and out of sight in the rain.
> I pulled out into the lake. If we were that close to the border I did not want to be hailed by a sentry along the road. I stayed out where I could just see the shore and rowed on for three quarters of an hour in the rain. We heard a motor boat once more but I kept quiet until the noise of the engine went away across the lake.
> "I think we're in Switzerland, Cat," I said. "Really?" "There's no way to know until we see Swiss troops."
> "Or the Swiss navy." "The Swiss navy's no joke for us. That last motor boat we heard was probably the Swiss navy." "If we're in Switzerland let's have a big breakfast. They have wonderful rolls and butter and jam in Switzerland."
> It was clear daylight now and a fine rain was falling. The wind was still blowing outside up the lake and we could see the tops of the white-caps going away from us and up the lake. I was sure we were in Switzerland now. There were many houses back in the trees from the shore and up the shore a way was a village with stone houses, some villas on the hills and a church.
> I had been looking at the road that skirted the shore for guards but did not see any. The road came quite close to the lake now and I saw a soldier coming out of a café on the road. He wore a gray-green uniform and a helmet like the Germans. He had a healthy-looking face and a little toothbrush mustache. He looked at us.
> "Wave to him," I said to Catherine. She waved and the soldier smiled embarrassedly and gave a wave of his hand. I eased up rowing. We were passing the waterfront of the village. "We must be well inside the border," I said. "We want to be sure, darling. We don't want them to turn us back at the frontier."
> "The frontier is a long way back. I think this is the customs town. I'm pretty sure it's Brissago." "Won't there be Italians there? There are always both sides at a customs town." "Not in war-time. I don't think they let the Italians cross the frontier."
> It was a nice-looking little town. There were many fishing boats along the quay and nets were spread on racks. There was a fine November rain falling but it looked cheerful and clean even with the rain.
> "Should we land then and have breakfast?" "All right." I pulled hard on the left oar and came in close, then straightened out when we were close to the quay and brought the boat alongside. I pulled in the oars, took hold of an iron ring, stepped up on the wet stone and was in Switzerland. I tied the boat and held my hand down to Catherine. "Come on up, Cat. It's a grand feeling."
> "What about the bags?" "Leave them in the boat." Catherine stepped up and we were in Switzerland together. "What a lovely country," she said. "Isn't it grand?" "Let's go and have breakfast!" "Isn't it a grand country? I love the way it feels under my shoes."
> "I'm so stiff I can't feel it very well. But it feels like a splendid country. Darling, do you realize we're here and out of that bloody place?" "I do. I really do. I've never realized anything before." "Look at the houses. Isn't this a fine square? There's a place we can get breakfast."
> "Isn't the rain fine? They never had rain like this in Italy. It's cheerful rain." "And we're here, darling! Do you realize we're here?" We went inside the café and sat down at a clean wooden table. We were cockeyed excited. A splendid clean-looking woman with an apron came and asked us what we wanted.
> "Rolls and jam and coffee," Catherine said. "I'm sorry, we haven't any rolls in war-time." "Bread then." "I can make you some toast." "All right."
> "I want some eggs fried too." "How many eggs for the gentleman?" "Three." "Take four, darling." "Four eggs."
> The woman went away. I kissed Catherine and held her hand very tight. We looked at each other and at the café. "Darling, darling, isn't it lovely?" "It's grand," I said. "I don't mind there not being rolls," Catherine said. "I thought about them all night. But I don't mind it. I don't mind it at all."
> "I suppose pretty soon they will arrest us." "Never mind, darling. We'll have breakfast first. You won't mind being arrested after breakfast. And then there's nothing they can do to us. We're British and American citizens in good standing."
> "You have a passport, haven't you?" "Of course. Oh let's not talk about it. Let's be happy." "I couldn't be any happier," I said. A fat gray cat with a tail that lifted like a plume crossed the floor to our table and curved against my leg to purr each time she rubbed. I reached down and stroked her. Catherine smiled at me very happily. "Here comes the coffee," she said.
> They arrested us after breakfast. We took a little walk through the village then went down to the quay to get our bags. A soldier was standing guard over the boat. "Is this your boat?" "Yes." "Where do you come from?" "Up the lake." "Then I have to ask you to come with me."
> "How about the bags?" "You can carry the bags." I carried the bags and Catherine walked beside me and the soldier walked along behind us to the old custom house. In the custom house a lieutenant, very thin and military, questioned us. "What nationality are you?" "American and British," "Let me see your passports."
> I gave him mine and Catherine got hers out of her handbag. He examined them for a long time. "Why do you enter Switzerland this way in a boat?" "I am a sportsman," I said. "Rowing is my great sport. I always row when I get a chance." "Why do you come here?"
> "For the winter sport. We are tourists and we want to do the winter sport." "This is no place for winter sport." "We know it. We want to go where they have the winter sport." "What have you been doing in Italy?"
> "I have been studying architecture. My cousin has been studying art." "Why do you leave there?" "We want to do the winter sport. With the war going on you cannot study architecture." "You will please stay where you are," the lieutenant said. He went back into the building with our passports.
> "You're splendid, darling," Catherine said. "Keep on the same track. You want to do the winter sport." "Do you know anything about art?" "Rubens," said Catherine. "Large and fat," I said. "Titian," Catherine said. "Titian-haired," I said. "How about Mantegna?"
> "Don't ask hard ones," Catherine said. "I know him though--very bitter." "Very bitter," I said. "Lots of nail holes." "You see I'll make you a fine wife," Catherine said. "I'll be able to talk art with your customers." "Here he comes," I said. The thin lieutenant came down the length of the custom house, holding our passports. "I will have to send you into Locarno," he said.
> "You can get a carriage and a soldier will go in with you." "All right," I said. "What about the boat?" "The boat is confiscated. What have you in those bags?" He went all through the two bags and held up the quarter-bottle of brandy. "Would you join me in a drink?" I asked. "No thank you." He straightened up. "How much money have you?"